Monday, January 25, 2016

Smoked Pork....Brine & Rub


For Christmas, I got my husband an inexpensive smoker.  This year was also the first year we raised pigs so we have a freezer full of pork.  What a great combination...smoked pork.  I thought I would share a brine and rub recipe from our first attempt at smoking meat.



Pork Loin Brine
1 gallon water
2 1/2 cups canning salt
1/4 cup soy sauce
1 cup brown sugar
1 tsp ginger
1 Tbs powdered garlic
1 tsp onion powder
1/4 tsp cayenne pepper
1 tsp dry mustard
1/2 tsp ground pepper
1 tsp basil
1 tsp rosemary
(Capper's Farmer Summer 2014)

Combine all the ingredients and stir until sugar and salt are dissolved.  You can freeze portions of this until you need it.  






A sirloin pork roast




We placed a pork roast in a plastic bag with some of the brine and refrigerated it overnight.  Brining adds flavor and results in a moister meat.  Basically you are placing the meat in a salt solution which results in a scientific process called osmosis. This process seeks to equalize the amount of salt on the outside of the meat with the amount on the inside. The salt and seasonings are drawn into the meat fibers adding to the flavor of the meat and keeping it moist.

After the brining, we rubbed all the sides with this dry rub.


Carolina Dry Rub
1/4 cup ground black pepper
1/4 cup paprika
2 Tbs sugar
1 Tbs salt
1/2 Tbs chili powder
1 1/2 tsp garlic powder
1 1/2 tsp onion powder
 (Capper's Farmer Summer 2014)

Mix the rub and store in a sealed container.


After a rub you could mop the meat with your favorite BBQ sauce.  We decided to try it without sauce.  


We smoked the meat at 200 degrees until the internal temperature was 170 degrees. It was delicious and moist.  We are excited about trying new recipes.  Please share your wealth of knowledge about brines, rubs, sauces, and smoking meats.



Our side dish was roasted root crops  from our garden.....potatoes, golden beets, beets, and carrots. 


Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Meet the "Not So Popular" Spring Crops




We all have our garden favorites.  Rutabagas and kohlrabi never seem to make the list.  While I wouldn't go hog wild in planting these, maybe you could try  and squeeze a few of the lesser known cool season crops in some corner of the garden.  I'm a firm believer that all it takes is the right recipe and then you'll be friends for life.

So let me introduce you to some cool season crops that get very little mention or attention in the garden spotlight.  Considering their nutritional value and storage potential they are important for those trying to grow year round and be self-reliant.



Kohlrabi


Kohlrabi is a beautiful plant and unique.  It looks like a small round green or violet space ship resting on the garden bed among frilly, broccoli-like leaves.  The green or violet bulb is actually a swollen stem. It's taste is mild, sweeter than a turnip, and similar to the heart of a cabbage.  Kohlrabi is in the Brassica Oleracea family.  It is in the same family as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, and kale; therefore it needs similar growing conditions as these crops. The are quick growing and ready to harvest in 55-65 days.  Like all Brassicas it is an anti-cancer veggie. It's leaves and bulb have Vitamin C & A, potassium and fiber.



Culture



  • Kohlrabi likes soil rich in organic matter
  • Sow in early spring as soon as soil can be worked or as a fall crop
  • They can tolerant a frost and temperatures down to 20 degrees but protect during a hard frost.
  • I usually plant around St Patrick's Day which allows them time to be harvested before the heat sets in.
  • Plant 4 / square foot
  • Avoid water stressing kohlrabi.  It has shallow roots and water fluctuations cause the stem to become woody.


Harvesting



  • The most tender and best flavored kohlrabi are harvested at a diameter of 2 - 3 inches
  • Leaves can be harvested when young and used like cabbage.  Your goats and chickens will also love the leaves if you choose not to harvest them.
  • Pull the bulb up and trim off root and leaves
  • To eat peel the outer skin off.  
  • They can be eaten raw and are a crisp treat in your favorite dip or cooked in dishes with other root crops.
  • They store 2-3 weeks in the refrigerator 


Pest and Disease



  • They are victims of the same pests as cabbage
  • Cabbage loppers can be controlled with spinosad or Neem oil or just pick them off
  • These are very easy to grow as long as you plant them in the proper season
  • Row covers are helpful if you have problems with cabbage loppers 

 

Varieties


I think the purple varieties are the most stunning. Try planting the white and purple varieties in a staggered pattern for a beautiful presentation.
  
  • Purple Vienna
  • White Vienna


Seed Statistics and Seed Saving



  • Seeds store well for 4-5 years
  • Kohlrabi is biennial and those for seed saving are planted in the fall.  The plants are dug up after a frost.  Remove the leaves and trim the root to 4-6 inches.  Store in damp sand or sawdust. Replant the best roots in the spring for seed production.
  • If you have mild winters and protection you can over winter kohlrabi for seed.




Seed Saving in the Brassica Family



  • All members of the B. oleracea will cross pollinate that includes broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, cabbage, and Brussel sprouts.
  • The have perfect flowers containing both male and female parts but require insects for pollination
  • They are self-incompatible meaning they need the pollen from another plant to be carried by native pollinators and bees to produce seed.
  • In this family it is always wise to save seeds from a variety of plants
  • Many are biennials needed 2 years to produce seed


Rutabagas Brassica napus


Rutabagas are also known as Swede turnips although they are not in the same family as turnips.  They have white or yellow flesh.  There are 3 subspecies:  those grown for their roots, those grown for leaves (Siberian Kale), and rape varieties grown for seed oil. The are higher in nutrition than turnips being high in vitamin A and C, iron, and fiber.





Culture



  • If summer temperatures exceed 75 they are unhappy.  I plant them as a fall crop.
  • Direct seed in soil with organic matter
  •  Even moisture is important
  • 4/ square foot
  • Plants are frost tolerant and can be mulched well through winter or put under a low tunnel
  • Mature in 90-100 days  


Harvesting



  • Frosts sweeten up the roots by increasing the sugars
  • Dig up the roots after a few frosts and trim the tops to 2 "
  • The can keep for 2-4 months at 32 degrees and with humidity
  • They store fine in the fridge, or in a root cellar in damp sand
  • They can be cooked and mashed with potatoes,  roasted, or added to soups with carrots and other root crops.  They are very good roasted with other root crops.
Joan rutabagas

 

Varieties



  • Joan and Magres



Turnips (Brassica rapa)

Turnips seem to be enjoyed by both European and Asian cultures.  It is used for both it's leaves and roots. The mustard like leaves are slightly hairy. Tiny white turnips are increasing in popularity and can be eaten raw.  The larger roots are used as storage crops.  There are various shapes and colors.


Culture



  • The turnips are best grown as early spring or fall crops.
  •  A fall crop will produce a better tasting crop with frosts sweetening the roots.
  • Plant 2 months before first frost date
  • Evenly moist soil produces fast growth and better flavor
  • The exposed top of the root will develop color of green or purple


Harvesting



  • Harvest greens when young
  • Pull, trim tops to two inches and store in a cool humid place
  • Smaller bulbs of 2-3" will be tenderer  
  • The small radish size turnips can be eaten raw in salads 
  • The larger turnips are good roasted or used in stews and soups


Varieties



  • Purple Top for larger root
  • Hakurei for small white turnips
  • Golden Ball


Broccoli Rabe or Raab


If you are expecting a broccoli head you will be disappointed.This veggie is actually in the turnip family.  It is grown for its leaves and unopened flower stocks. It is a newcomer in American gardens but an Italian favorite.

 
Sprouting broccoli and broccoli raab

Culture

  • Direct seed in early spring or late summer for a fall crop
  • Since this is a leafy crop fish emulsion will assist in leaf growth
  • Rather quick growing so do not water stress



Harvest



  • Leaves can be harvested as cut and come again lettuce cutting the outer leaves as needed
  •  Harvest when flower buds first appear because it bolts quickly. 
  • Young plants are entirely edible but older plants get tough
  • The leafy greens can be cooked as other greens and mixed with other greens

 

Radishes


A crisp addition to salads and veggie trays, radishes come in a variety of shapes and sizes.  There are small red, white, pink or purple varieties. And the daikon radish which can grow to more than 20" long.



  • Radishes can be seeded directly in the garden when soil temps are 40 degrees
  • If grown in warm weather they will be hot and pithy.
  • It's best to grow them quickly in cool weather so maintain even moisture.
  • A great early spring and fall crop.
  • Radishes are often planted around cucumbers and squash and allowed to go to seed to deter the cucumber beetle
  • Since they mature quickly you can succession plant through the cool seasons


Brussels Sprouts


Brussels sprouts are a beautiful 3' plant with baby cabbages growing along the stem. They are not technically  baby cabbages.  They are a bud growing in the axils of each leaf. They are a slow growing crop needing a long season.  The baby cabbages or edible heads develop the first year and the flower and seed the second year.  They are in the same family and cross pollinate with cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and collards.





Culture

  • No hot summers for Brussels sprouts.  Give them cool weather, frosts, and even light snows to develop.
  • Warm weather will cause the sprouts to open and taste poor
  • A good three months is needed to reach maturity.  I start them indoors in August and plant out in fall or buy transplants
  • Add a dry organic fertilizer to the planting hole 
  • Will tolerate shade
  • Fertile soil with lots of organic matter and even moisture are necessary are necessary to maintain growth.
  • While small plant a crop in between such a peas for pea tendrils


Harvest



  • Sprouts mature from the bottom up
  • Harvest when they are the size of large marble and tightly closed
  • Open sprouts become bitter and large sprouts will split
  • Remove the leaf below the sprout and twist the sprout off 
  • Brussels sprouts will store for 4-6 weeks in 32 degrees with 80-90% humidity.
  • Check for rot frequently in stored crops


Pest and Disease



  • The same pest and disease problems as cabbage.
  • If planted in the right season few problems.


Varieties



  • There are green and red varieties
  • Rubine is a red heirloom with smaller yields but good flavor
  • Bubbles F1 tolerates heat better
  • Long Island Improved OP


Celery

Want a challenge?  Plant celery.  It needs a long growing season but is both sensitive to heat and cold.  
Celery inter-planted with Marigolds.


Culture



  • Start celery indoors 10 weeks before last frost
  • Seeds are very small so thin to healthiest plants in planting trays
  • Celery needs only morning sun and prefers shade in the afternoon
  • Temperatures must be above 50 degrees before you plant it out in the garden
  • It will not tolerate drought but wants plenty of moisture 
  • Celery needs a rich fertile soil.  Add plenty of organic matter and a dry fertilizer.  It also likes fish emulsion as it gets established.


Harvesting


To blanch celery mound dirt around base a few weeks before harvest. It is not necessary but more for cosmetic appearance



Varieties

 

Utah Improved









Soil Preparation for all Spring Crops

I prepare all my bed in the fall so when spring arrives they are ready to plant.  A prepared bed has plenty of compost incorporated in the soil.  Come spring mix a dry organic fertilizer into the bed and put in planting holes of transplants.  Use fish emulsion throughout growing season for leafy crops.  Even moisture is essential for all crops.

Tuesday, January 12, 2016

Garden Design: Creating a Theme








My backyard




My front yard


One of the flower beds at Thanksgiving Piont, Lehi, Utah.  The hedge in the background creates the walls of this garden room.

I love the river rock.  This is at Thanksgiving Point Gardens


While the majority of my posts focus on food production,  I like my gardens to be inviting and beautiful. I like each area to have a place  where people can sit, ponder, and enjoy nature. I want people to come visit and want to stay and hopefully discover new things while here.  I enjoy the creating or designing.  Everything is always a work in progress and I enjoy the journey.

















































































Flower beds and landscape are not only aesthetically pleasing but functional.  Flowers and shrubs provide home and food for native pollinators, predatory insects, birds, lizards, and toads.  These inhabitants will benefit and assist in controlling disease and pest problems in the gardens and orchard.  Basically you can't lose by landscaping and it can all be done organically.

 
My shade garden.  My boys bring home the rusty antiques.


The garden is a canvas that can express your personality and passions as well and be functional and provide food.  The more I garden more reverence I have for God's creations, and the more humble and grateful I am for the beauty around me. 

Part of  garden trail in my backyard.  A gooseberry is in the back of the bed so landscape can provide food.



It is sad that to some gardening is reduced to a task or chore when it can be an inspiring, enjoyable passion. You may be thinking, "I would enjoy it but  ......"   Think of it as a partnership between you and Mother Nature.  Sometimes she has things her way and occasionally things go the way you planned.


 "It is utterly forbidden to be half-hearted about gardening. You have got to love your garden whether you like it or not." ~W.C. Sellar & R.J. Yeatman, Garden Rubbish, 1936

With winter comes all the possibilities, visions, and dreams of a new season.  Whether you are planning a new area or working on improving an existing garden,  it all starts with a plan.  And that plan should start with a theme to inspire the design.





The river bank at Thanksgiving Point with yarrow and Black eyed Susan's.

Steps To Design
  • Pick a Theme
  • Brainstorm and research
  • Carry out the project




One of my garden beds in early spring.  A snowball bush is blowing with irises.  This is the early spring blooms.

Pick a Theme:

There are lots of tradition gardens:
cottage, cut flowers, vegetable, herb, a butterfly garden, rose garden, formal, evergreen, rock gardens, shade gardens.

Why not incorporate a part of yourself.  Think of hobbies, favorite books, favorite people, time periods, favorite foods,  or holiday etc. Use those ideas to choose color, paving, shape, and furniture.  Below are a few quick ideas that came to mind.  Please share any ideas you have for garden themes.

Coleus and sweet potato vine are in the old wash tub with Bishop's weed as a ground cover.

Hobbies:  Quilting, dairy goat, antiques, birdhouses, bicycles, cowboy, grand kids,  chickens, watercolor, hunting, cooking
 


Favorite Books:  Alice in Wonderland, The Hobbit ,  Secret Garden, Pooh's Hundred Acre Woods,  Peter Rabbit and McGregor's garden,  Peter Pan's Neverland,  Pride and Prejudice.....

People:  Monet's Garden, Jefferson's Monticello,Picasso garden, VanGogh's Sunflower Garden or tulip garden

A perfect Monet's garden with water lilies.  This is at Thanksgiving Point.

Time Period, Era, or Holiday:  Patriotic, Old West, Victorian, Easter, Old English, 

Places:  Garden plants from a particular area or country alpine, meadow, desert, Japanese or Dutch garden

Animals:  Duck, goats, cows, pigs. beehives and bees, chickens

An old chicken feeder makes a great planter. In the background is an antique laundry stove.


Foods:  Pink Lemonade (colors) , pizza garden

Collections:  Old spoons, watering cans, license plates, vintage garden tools, bucket list

Colors:  Primary Colors, secondary colors, warm or cool colors, favorite sports team colors, analogous colors.


Beautiful use of contrasting colors and mass plantings.  This is at an LDS Temple..


The idea of a theme is to inspire color combos, shapes, paving, furniture, garden art, and planting choices.  No one but you my know the inspiration for your garden or it can be very obviously worked into the design.

Brainstorm:  

Once you have a theme, write down any and all ideas that come to mind.  Do some research, search pinterest,  who knows what will inspire you. Hopefully some of you ideas inspire actually design elements.



Elements of Design

Structure and Shape:  Define the size of the area and the shape.  Relate it to your theme.  Should it be formal or informal, use defined shapes or be free flowing? Consider the contour of the land, adding different levels, and consider the purpose of the garden.
This is part of my backyard I like meandering shapes.
This is looking down at the same area.  There is a pole fence and terraced garden behind.

Hardscape:  This includes all the non-living aspects of your garden.  Patios, furniture, arbors, fences, walls, trellises, paving, and containers.

If you think of the garden area as a room.  Decide what to do with the floor then consider the walls

The floor determines the shape. Determine the planting areas and non planting areas, paving, and ground covers. 

Walls can be fences, part of an existing structure, trellises, planters, containers, rocks, boulders, or hedges

The ceiling can be a tree canopy, lanterns, pergola, or open to the sky

An old shed is perfect adjacent to a garden.  This is the Hill's garden in Rexburg Idaho.  They are wonderful hobby gardeners.
This is part of the terraced garden.

This was at a wedding facility.  Beautiful.


Furniture:

Be creative, re-purpose, repaint, incorporate color and elements of your theme into the furniture. It's amazing what a can of spray paint can do. Create your own unique chair idea.  Include a table, crate, trunk, barrel, milk can turned into a table, wheelbarrow etc.
Raymond Hill's garden in Rexburg Idaho.

The terraced garden with a bridge over a rock river in by backyard.

Examples of garden furniture. This area is in my raised bed vegetable garden.  It is unfinished but so many ideas are forming just waiting for spring.

Ornamentation:  Choose a couple of elements to make it unique.  This can be lighting, garden art, fountains, creative planters, signs, wind chimes, plant markers.

A perfect statue for this river bank at Thanksgiving Point.
A garden girl helping in my garden.
I love this wagon and choice of plants.  The Hill's garden in Rexburg Idaho.
An old ladder is a great garden ornament.
A wine barrel we turned into a rain barrel.

Plant Materials:  

Be sure to use appropriate plants for your zone, soil, also consider the amount of sunlight, size of the plants and watering needs.  Consider the care and time you have and how to minimize weeds.  Do you want perennials, annuals, or a mix? 
Hosta and Sugar Berry Heucheras or Coral Bells part of my shade garden.

Catmint, lemon balm, and May Night Salvia all in the middle of my raised bed vegetable garden

Hostas, Coral Bells, Impatients in my shade garden

Choose colors:  coordinate color with your theme.  consider bloom time and if you want year round color, consider flower shape and variations in height

Include some neutral which is green plants in the gardening world.  They define and draw attention to the color aspects of your garden.  

Lots of color in this Thanksgiving Point flower bed

A bed of dahlias at Thanksgiving Point.


Other things to consider:


  • Mass plantings are more impressive than single plantings
  • Group plants in odd numbers
  • Consider the height and incorporate plants of different heights: tall, medium, border, and ground covers
  • Create a pattern or mix it up for a natural look
Pansies and Violas

I really like the yellow tulips in this river of lavender and violet.

Form: The shape of the plant will be more constant than the show of color so consider that when choosing plan. Flowers fade so the shape of the plant, leaves, bark color are all important. 
 



Evergreens can added form to your garden


Incorporate edibles:  Chard, Kale, rhubarb, nanking cherry, jostaberries, ornamental peppers, strawberries, can all be used in landscape
This can be pruned to be a small tree or a shrub and the cherries make delicious jelly.

Celery hiding among marigolds

Elderberry is a gorgeous shrub with berries great for jelly and medicinal purposes.  The flowers are beautiful.

I think chard adds interest to a landscape.
The color of Blood Red Beets adds interest to landscape

Pink Champagne currants are part of my landscape.  I love the pink translucent berries

Use an online data base to help you find plants for your zone



Here are some quick ideas I came up with for themes:

Chuckwagon:  wagon wheels, cast iron frying pans, wood boxes,  old dutch ovens.  Evergreens, red, yellow, white flowers, Fire Dance Kniphofia, Russian sage, succulents, bandanna chair covers, rocking chairs, rusted barbed wire, old boots, wagon bench, mason jar lights

Here's some flower and color choice that are inspired by this theme:
Rudbeckia

A long bloomer Gailardias of Blanket flower

Also a long bloom Rudbeckia

Gerber daisy

Shasta daisy

Zinnia

Dahlia

Gerber daisy at home in an old kettle

Add caption

Calendula


Blanket flower



Dairy Goat:  milk jugs, milking pail, glass antique milk jars, cream separator the top makes a great planter, white, silver leafed plants like lambs ear, stools, cow bells for chimes.....

Dusty Millers with Verbena and petunias at Thanksgiving Point

Delphiliums one of my favorites


Looks just like spilled milk




Lamb's ear or Nubian goats ear.


Peonies in pale pink

Angelica tulip

Add caption




  Bedtime Garden:  Bed Spring trellis, head boards for fence, flowers that close up at night, aromatic flowers like stalk, Hyacinth, and sweet peas.


Honeysuckle


Add caption



Catananche or Cupid's Dart the flowers close up at night


Catananche
    
Salvia

Dahlia
Salvia

Can't have a bedtime garden without lavender

Lavendar

Zinnia

Add caption


Grape Hyicinth



Hibiscus


Liatris

Garden phlox

Nicotiana

Children's Garden:  Little red wagon,  tonka trunks,  Trellis tepee,  gourds growing on a trellis, pumpkins, hopscotch pavers, sand box,  lots of edibles that kids can pick like peas, strawberries, a cornfield to get lost in.
Cinderella pumpkins


Amaranth grows tall and comes in many colors

Gourds growing on a trellis or archway

Kohlrabi looks like alien spaceships on the dirt
Rhubarb

Jostaberries

Sunflowers of all kinds

Elderberries older canes are hollow and can be made into flutes

Frozen Garden:  I picture this as garden with bold color like blue, deep purple, evergreens, magenta,  large round rocks that could possible turn into trolls, mosses, antique sleds, and of course carrots for Sven and Olfa's nose.  


Snowball bush





Butterfly bush

Lily


Sweet William

Cosmos


Weigela bush


Baptisia

Enchinacea


Geranium





Lots of evergreens and boulders


Redwood dogwood for winter interest

Mr McGregor's Garden:  Picket fence, vintage farm tools, cabbage ornamental kale,  orange, peach, yellow, and white flowers inter-planted with vegetables,  I see cosmos, zinnias, dahlias, a rabbit hole, rabbit statues and a little blue coat and rubber boots. Or this could be your vegetable garden with some flowers inter-planted.




















Cosmos

Rose begonias

Daffodils

Prospector's Garden:  Pick and ax, mining cart, lots of boulders and rocks with flowers inter planted,  railroad tie borders, rock river or running fountain. Flower colors the color of gemstones. Lots of ornamental grasses.






Bishops weed

Zinnias

Pestemon






Yarrow










Wizzard of Oz Garden:  Red brick winding path lined with red ornamental poppies leading to your garden shed with boots of wicked witch of the east poking out, scarecrow, red and purple flowers









Anyway you get the idea. It's fun to think of the possibilities and even harder to narrow it down.  

Visit gardens for inspiration.  Some gardens like Thanksgiving Point offer landscaping classes. 


Shop the thrift stores, Deseret Industries, antique stores, and even ask a neighbor for there "junk."  I got an old bed spring and ladder off my dad's property that I thought  was a treasure and he was glad to get rid of it.


Take pictures of gardens and flower combinations you like.

Have fun with your gardens let them be an inspiration as well as a source of food.



 "It was such a pleasure to sink one's hands into the warm earth, to feel at one's fingertips the possibilities of the new season." ~Kate Morton, The Forgotten Garden



Writing this post has got me all excited to improve and add personality to my gardens.  


If all your plans and plants fail you can call it your, "Green Acres" garden and try again next year.  But never give up.  Here's Winston Churchill quote for those of you who feel as if gardening is a wartime effort with weeds and disease winning the battle.


"Success is not final, fail is not fatal; it is the courage to continue that counts."  Winston Churchill 

 Much of the inspiration for this post came from a MasterGardener Webinar by Lisa Orgler.  For more ideas and help in landscaping check out her web page.