Sunday, August 9, 2015

Pie Pumpkins or Sugar Pumpkins









"For pottage and puddings and custards and pies
Our pumpkins and parsnips are common supplies,
We have pumpkins at morning and pumpkins at noon,
If it were not for pumpkins we should be undoon."
Pilgrim verse, circa 1633


History of Pumpkins


The pumpkin is thought to have originated in the Americas.  The original pumpkins were not the round,bright, orange varieties we think of but the crook neck varieties.  They were cultivated along the river banks with beans and sunflowers.They literally prevented starvation in the long winter months.

The Indians used the flesh in numerous ways:  roasted, boiled, parched, and dried.  The dried pumpkin could be ground into flour.  They also ate the seeds and used them for medicinal purposes.  The shells could be dried and used as storage bowls.

Pumpkins were at the second Thanksgiving feast and the pilgrims depended on this crop to survive the winter.  The original pumpkin pie had no crust but was cooked in the shell.  The pilgrims cut the top off, scooped out the seeds, and filled the tureen with cream, eggs, honey, and spices. They put the top back on and buried it in ashes. Delicious!



Stewed Pumpkin or Pompion 1672 Recipe

8 cups peeled diced pumpkin
1/4 cup water
2 Tbs butter
2 Tbs vinegar
1/3 cup brown sugar
1/4 tsp ginger
1/4 tsp. cinnamon
salt to taste

This would have been a standard way pumpkin was prepared in New England.  Put 2 cups of peeled diced pumpkin and 1/4 c water into a pot and cook gently over low heat until they sink down.  Keep adding more pumpkin until you have used all 8 cups.  When cooked, the pumpkin will be soft but will keep its form.  It will resemble stewed apples.

Do not add more water.  Remove from the heat and add butter, vinegar, brown sugar and spices.  Stir gently and serve.


 Meet the Pumpkin

All pumpkins are considered a winter squash.   They are part of the cucurbit family along with squash, melons, and watermelons. There are four species.  Cross pollination only occurs within the same species.  Pumpkins are c. pepo species.  They have hard, woody furrowed stems.  Summer squash, field pumpkins, and acorn squash are also in this family.

Sugar pumpkins are smaller than the typical Jack-0-lantern pumpkins.  They are 6-8 inches in diameter and often have nettled skins instead of smooth outside skin.  The sugar or pie pumpkins is the best choice for roasting or making pumpkin puree.  The flesh is sweeter, less stringy, and has less moisture than larger pumpkins.  The can be prepared like any other winter squash.  They need 105-120 days to mature and time to cure so plan accordingly.

The larger field pumpkins are best for carving and decorating.  Their flesh is watery, stringy, and less flavorful. They were breed to have thicker rinds and thus more stability when carved. But what would a fall garden be without Howden, Kuncklehead, and Connecticut Field pumpkins.   They can also be used as a hollowed out tureen for fall soups.  Your chickens will love these pumpkins as a fall treat and the deer also enjoy them.

There are also unique varieties of pumpkin to try that also make delicious pie puree and are good roasted.  Any Cinderella pumpkin such as Rouge Vif'd etmapes, the cheese pumpkins, and red kuri.


 Types of Pie or Sugar Pumpkins

 


Winter Luxury


At the top of the list is the heirloom variety, Winter Luxury, that has been around since 1893.  This beautiful pumpkins is a perfectly round 4-6 lb variety with a nettled skin.  This variety supposedly tops the blind taste tests.  Winter Luxury always has a place in my garden.  I grow plenty to share with family and friends.




Orange Smoothie Pumpkin


This is another heirloom variety that I love.  It has a beautiful deep, smooth orange outside skin. They are 4-6 lbs and slightly ribbed.


Cinderella Pumpkins


Cinderella Pumpkins are a French heirloom more accurately call Rouge Vif'd etemptes.  Not only are they enchanting they are delicious and the larger size gives you lots of puree.  This is my second favorite pie pumpkin.  This is thought to be the pumpkin used at the second Thanksgiving so definitely give it a try on the holidays.  These are absolutely enchantingly beautiful pumpkins for decorating.  Their unique shape is most definitely that of Cinderella's carriage.  If only you had a fairy God mother to complete the magic.




Growing Pie Pumpkins


Pie pumpkins are easy to grow.  They need full sun and lots of room to grow.  The vines can grow up to 8-15 feet long.  They like a soil rich in organic matter.  I plant my winter squash, corn, pumpkins melons and potatoes in a field rotating the crops every year. Do not over crowd pumpkins you want good air circulation to prevent powdery mildew.

I dig out a hole at least 1x1 foot.  Mix in lots of compost and a good organic dry fertilizer. This puts the fertilizer at the root zone. Fill the hole in and plant 2-3 seeds 2 inches deep.  I would thin it to the two healthiest plants. I leave an indentation because the warm winds tend to dry out our soil.  Once the plants are up and true leaves appear apply more mulch and give them a drink of fish emulsion and kelp. You can give them more fish emulsion when they begin to flower.

Dry Organic Fertilizer Mix


When to Plant


Wait until your soil warms to 70 degrees before planting.  To warm the soil you can put down black porous mulch cloth.  In my zone, I plant on Memorial Day and into June depending on the maturity date of the variety I'm planting and when I want to harvest.

They should germination in 5-10 days.  Pumpkins seeds can be stored for up to 6 years.



Weeds


Keep the weeds under control.  Once the vines are large enough they tend to shade out weeds.  Keep the weeds down while the vines are small because  it is difficult to get to weeds without damaging your vines once they mature. Any organic corn gluten weed control is helpful in controlling weeds.


Watering

I believe many garden problems are result of poor watering habits.  Overhead watering is never a good idea.  Water in the morning.  Invest in a good water system but always monitor your plants and make adjustments.

 Pumpkins are 80-90% water.  Even moisture is the key to productive, healthy plants. How frequently you water will depend on the amount of organic matter in your soil, rainfall, wind, and your method of watering.  Poke your finger a couple of inches in the ground.  The soil should be cool and moist.

 Mulching around plants  helps maintain even moisture and adds organic matter to the soil.



You can see the developing fruit at the base of the flower.

Flowering

The first flowers that appear are usually male. They produce pollen that attracts the bees.  The female flowers often only open for a day.  The native squash bee is usually responsible pollinating pumpkins.  Learn good cultural practices to attract and maintain Native Pollinators.

To distinguish between male and female flower look at the base of the stem.  The stem of male flowers are straight.  Female flowers bulge at the base.


Disease


Powdery mildew is a problem for pumpkins. It is a fungal disease that first manifests as circular talcum looking spots. It looks like a dusting of powder on the leaves.  Certain conditions need to exist for powdery mildew to colonize.  It needs dense growing conditions, humidity, dry leaf conditions, and ideal temperatures of 70-80 degrees.  It seems to begin after fruiting and in older plantings.

Always monitor your pumpkins for powdery mildew. Begin monitoring in July.  Check 5 or more leaves in the upper and lower canopy.

Organic fungicides include Serenade, Neem Oil, and a .5 percent solution of baking soda (1 teaspon of baking soda in 1 quart of water)  The plant needs to be sprayed thoroughly both the underside of leaves and the top and all leaves in the canopy.  Fungicides stop the colonization or spread of the fungus.  A preventative program is helpful.  I add Serenade to my spray rountine for squash bugs.

Cultural practices make a huge difference in preventing disease.  Look for resistant varieties.  Provide good air circulation by spacing pumpkin vines 4-6 feet apart.  Be sure to remove all plant debris at the end of the season. Leftover plant debris acts as an inoculate the following year.

o

Pests



Aphids:  

 The first indication you may have of an infestation of aphids is that the tender young leaves start curling and wilting.  If leaves regain tugor after watering usually you have aphids or thrips sucking the sap from the underside of leaves. Upon close inspection you will see thousands of these tiny insects on the back side of the leaves. They can do a lot of damage to female blossoms too.  They will even appear on developing pumpkins.  Insecticidial soap, Neem oil, or pyrethrin for an out of control infestation will all help.  If you monitor you plants regularly a good spray of water will knock aphids off and no pesticides are necessary. 

Usually lady beetles will appear and their larvae will help with an aphid problem. 



Squash Bugs


The menace of pumpkins in my area are squash bugs.  I use a preventative spray program for squash and pumpkins.  Remember there are a couple generations so you have to diligent.  I've included the link to help you.  It uses only organic soft sprays and it works.

Controlling Squash Bugs



Harvesting and Curing Pumpkins


How do you know when your pumpkins are ready?  The stem hardens, the color dulls, and when you press the skin with your fingernail it is hard. The vines begin to die back

Cut at least a 3-6 inch stem.  Turn off the water and leave the pumpkins in the field to cure unless it is very moist and wet.  If a hard frost (below 27 degrees) is coming you will want to move them in cool garage.

Store pumpkins in a dry area at 50-55 degrees.  Spread out on a wood surface or on newspapers so the pumpkins are not touching.  Do not store on concrete.

Frequently check for weeping and soft spots.  You can cut out soft spots and use the good portions of the pumpkin.

Pumpkins store for about 3 months.

Chocolate chip pumpkin bread.

Pumpkin puree.

Making Pumpkin Puree


Cut the pumpkin in half lengthwise.  Scope out all the strings and seeds. Turn cut side down in a tray and place in a 350 degree oven.  Add about an inch of water.  Cooking time will depend on the size of the pumpkin.  The small sugar pumpkins take about 45 minutes.  Check with a fork.  Remove from the oven and allow to cool.  Scoop out the pumpkin into a blender or bowl.  You may have to add a small amount of water.  I prefer to use a stick blender.  Puree until smooth.  Put in clean glass canning jars or freezer containers and freeze.

No comments:

Post a Comment